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2015北舞考研英語語法解讀:倒裝句

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摘要:舞研堂英語輔導專家郭老師為北舞考研的同學們整理的考研英語十二大基礎語法體系,希望對大家的復習有所幫助。

  考研英語語法對于北舞考研的同學們來說可以說是最大的攔路虎,舞研堂英語輔導專家郭老師認為英語語法主要是分析句子結構,要在學習過程中慢慢積累和掌握,多做題找到英語語言的規律,以下是郭老師為北舞考研的同學們整理的考研英語十二大基礎語法體系,希望對大家的復習有所幫助。

  十、倒裝句

  英語句子的語序一般是固定的:主語在前,謂語在后,這叫陳述語序。謂語的全部或一部分(助動詞或情態動詞)放在主語之前的現象稱為倒裝。倒裝有兩種情況:語法倒裝和修辭倒裝。因為語法結構而必須倒裝的,叫語法倒裝;為達到某種修辭目的而倒裝的,叫修辭倒裝。我們學習倒裝的主要目的是增加對英語句式多樣性的認識,以便在寫作和口語中使用,這也是我們學習英語語法的主要目的。

  (一)語法倒裝

  1.一般疑問句和特殊疑問句要倒裝

  例如:

  Shall I open the door? 要我開門嗎?

  Are you cold? 你冷嗎?

  Can you read this poem in German? 你能用德語朗誦這首詩嗎?

  Which of the pictures do you like best? 你最喜歡哪張畫?

  How are you getting along? 你目前怎么樣?

  When will there be lasting peace in the world?

  什么時候世界上才能有持久的和平?

  2.There be 句型當中。There be 句型表達的意思是:“某處有….”。這個句型的主語在謂語動詞后面,因此這是倒裝語序。

  例如:

  There are not many people who want to read this book.

  想看這本書的人不多。

  There once lived a pack of wolves in this cave.

  在這個洞里曾經住過一群狼。

  There happened to be a taxi parked at the gate.

  碰巧門口停著一輛出租車。

  There is going to be a change in our arrangement.

 

  我們的安排將有一個變化。

  3.當連詞as 表示“雖然、盡管”引導讓步狀語從句時,句子要倒裝,as 相當于though,可以替換。

  如:

  Small as/though the atom is, we can smash it.

  盡管原子很小,我們可以擊碎它。

  Tired as/though he was, he went on working.

  (=Although he was very tired, he went on working.)

  雖然他很累,他還是接著工作。

  Cold as/though it was, we went out. 雖然天氣冷,我們還是出去了。

  Child as/though she is, she knows a great deal.

  她雖然是個孩子,但她懂得很多。

  Teacher as he is, he knows little about teaching.

  盡管他是個老師,但不懂什么教學。

  Pilots as he claims he is, no one has ever seen him fly a plane.

  盡管他聲稱是個飛行員,但誰也沒見過他非飛機。

  注意后四句是可數名詞單數作表語并提前,習慣上不用冠詞。

  4.虛擬語氣條件從句中的if 被省略時,要把從句中的were, had 或should 移到主語之前。(if 的省略、倒裝只限于從句中有were, had 或should這三個詞時。)

  例如:

  If I had been in your place, I wouldn’t have given it up so early.

  =Had I been in your place, I wouldn’t have given it up so early.

  如果我在你的位置,我不會這樣早放棄。

  If he were to succeed, the sun would rise from the west.

  =Were he to succeed, the sun….

  如果他能成功,太陽就會從西邊出來。

  If you should be asked about this, say that you know nothing.

  =Should you be asked about this, say……

  如果有人問起你這件事,你就說你什么也不知道。

  Were there no air or water, there would be no life on the earth.

  如果沒有空氣和水,地球上就不會有生命。

  Had you been more careful, you might have avoided the mistake.

  如果你再細心點,本來事可以避免這個錯誤的。

  5.以so開頭的,表示“也一樣”,“也這樣”的句子要倒裝。So 用于肯定句,代替上文中的形容詞、名詞或動詞,通常指前面所說的肯定情況也適用于其他人或物。結構是“so + be (do, have 其他助動詞或情態動詞)+主語”。

  如:

  Production is going up, so is the people’s standard of living.

  生產不斷發展,人們的生活水平也一樣。

  Society has changed and so have the people in it. 社會變了,

  社會上的人也變了。

  Coal is under the ground, and so is oil. 煤在地底下,石油也是。

  He saw it, and so did I. 他看見了,我也看見了。

  They can swim now, and so can we. 他們現在能游泳,我們也能。

  We must start for the work-site now. So must you.

  我們該動身去工地了,你們也該去了。

  注意:如果只是對前句的內容表示同意,則不要倒裝。

  如:

  It was hot yesterday. ?So it was! 昨天很熱。是的。

  He works very hard. ?So he does. 他工作很努力。是的。

  Tomorrow will be Monday. ?So it will. 明天星期一。對。

 

  翻譯下列句子:

  1)我會說英語。我弟弟也會。

  →I can speak English. So can my brother.

  2)他們上星期日到頤和園去了。我們也去了。

  →They went to the Summer Palace last Sunday. So did we.

  3)他去過長城。我也去過。

  →He has been to the Great Wall. So have I.

  4)她喜歡教英語。我姐姐也喜歡。

  →She enjoys teaching English. So does my sister.

  5)你說他很努力,對,他確實很努力,你也一樣。

  →You say he works hard. So he does, and so do you.

  注意:在so…..that…..結構中,如果so 在句首,通常也用倒裝結構。

  例如:

  So easy is it that a boy can learn it.

  那很容易,小孩子都能學。

  (原句是:It is so easy that a boy can learn it.)

  So rapidly did he speak that we could hardly understand him clearly. 他說得很快,我們簡直聽不清楚。

  (原句是:He spoke so rapidly that we could hardly understand him clearly.)

  6.以neither與nor開頭的句子,表示“…也不”時,句子倒裝。Neither 與nor 意思相同,可以互換。Neither, nor 用于否定句,通常指前面所說的否定情況也適用于其他人或物。結構是:Neither (nor) + be (do, have, 其他助動詞或情態動詞) +主語。

  例如:

  I won’t do such a thing. Nor/Neither will anyone else.

  我不會做這樣的事,別人也不會。

  The first one wasn’t good and neither was the second.

  第一個不好,第二個也不好。

  I won’t go there. Neither will she.

  我將不去那里。她也不去。

  翻譯練習:

  1)我不知道他住哪兒。她也不知道。

  I don’t know where he lives. Neither does she.

  2)我不知道這兩個句子的區別。?他們也不知道。

  I don’t know the difference between these two sentences. Nor do they.

  3)我昨天晚上沒有寫作文。魏芳也沒寫。

  I didn’t write my composition yesterday evening. Neither did Wei Fang.

  4)學生們不在教室里。老師也不在。

  The students were not in the classroom. Nor was the teacher.

  7.以here, there, now, then 等副詞開頭的句子中。習慣上用一般現在時(除以then開頭的句子用過去時)。

  例如:

  There comes the bus! 汽車來了。

  There goes the bell. 鈴響了。

  Now comes your turn. 該輪到你了。

  Then came a new difficulty. 接著來了個新難題。

  Then followed three days of heavy rain. 后來連著下了三天大雨。

  Up went the plane. 飛起來了飛機。

  Our rushed a cat from under the bed. 從床底下竄出一只貓。

  Here is a letter for you. 這兒有你一封信。

  注意:在這種句型中,如果主語是代詞時就不倒裝。

  例如:

  Here you are. 給你。

  There he comes. 他來了。

  Here it is. 這就是。

  8.在表示祝愿的句子中。

  如:

 

  May you have a pleasant trip. 祝你旅途愉快。

  (二)修辭倒裝

  1.在以never, hardly, scarcely, rarely, barely, seldom, not only, not until, nor, little, nowhere, hardly….when, no sooner….than, by no means, under no circumstances 等開頭的句子中,主謂要倒裝。這些都是表示否定或半否定意義的詞或詞組。

  例如:

  Never have I come across such a difficult problem.

  我還從沒有遇到過這樣困難的問題。

  Seldom do I read such magazines. 我很少讀這種雜志。

  No sooner had they left than the bus arrived.

  他們剛走,公共汽車就來了。

  Never before have I met him. 我以前從未見過他。

  Hardly did I think it possible. 我想這幾乎不可能。

  Not only should we not be afraid of difficulties, but we should try our best to overcome them.

  我們不但應該不怕困難,而且要盡最大努力克服困難。

  Not until midnight did it stop raining. 直到半夜雨才停。

  (正常語序是:It did not stop raining until midnight. 注意not位置的變化)

  Very seldom do you find that two clocks or watches exactly agree. 你很難發現兩個鐘或表的時間完全一樣。

  By no means will this method produce satisfactory results.

  這種方法決不會產生令人滿意的結果。

  翻譯練習(使用倒裝結構):

  1)我從來沒有讀過這么一本有意思的書。

  Never have I read such an interesting book.

  2)她一點也不知道會發生什么事。

  Little does she know what may happen.

  3)我簡直不相信這是真的。

  Hardly could I believe it (to be) true.

  4)我剛到家,就下起大雨來了。

  No sooner had I reached home than it began to rain heavily.

  5)最近我很少見到她。

  Seldom have I met her recently.

  6)愛因斯坦不僅是世界聞名的科學家,而且還是一個相當不錯的小提琴家。

  Not only was Einstein a world famous scientist, but also a fairly good violinist.

  7)直到戰爭結束,他才回家。

  Not until after the war did he return home.

  (正常語序是: He did not return home until after the war.)

  8)在任何情況下,我們都不應該做違反人民意愿的事。

  Under no circumstances should we do anything against the will of the people.

  2.在以“only+狀語”開頭的句子中,主謂要倒裝。這里only后面必須跟有它修飾的狀語或狀語從句,這是關鍵。否則就不倒裝。

  例如:

  Only after the war was over was man able to realize the wickedness of the atomic bomb.

  只是在戰爭結束后人類才意識到原子彈的可惡。

  (注意:only 引導的狀語從句不倒裝,主句倒裝。)

  Only then did I realize the importance of English.

  只在那時我才意識到英語的重要性。

  Only in this way can we improve ourselves.

  只有用這種方法我們才能不斷提高自己。

  Only after you finish it can you leave.

  只有結束它以后,你才能離開。(主句倒裝)

 

  注意:Only 如不在句首,或only 修飾的不是狀語,則不倒裝。

  如:

  The contract was signed only after bitter negotiations. 只有在艱苦的談判以后,合同才得以簽署。

  (改成倒裝:Only after bitter negotiations was the contract signed.)

  Only the senior staff are allowed to use this room.

  只許資深的職員使用這個房間。

  Only five passengers survived the accident.

  事故中只有五位旅客生存了下來。

  3.用于以表示處所、聲音等意義的副詞開頭的句子。用表示運動的不及物動詞(如go, come, rush, fly 等)作謂語時,為了表示生動,可將某些副詞放在句首,謂語動詞放在主語之前,形成倒裝結構。

  例如:

  Away flew the birds. 鳥兒飛走了。

  Out went the children. 孩子們出去了。

  Down came the rain. 下起大雨來了。

  Bang went the firecracker. 爆竹砰的一聲響了。

  The door burst open and in rushed a stranger.

  門突然開了,一個陌生人沖了進來。

  4.用倒裝來避免頭重腳輕,使句子顯得平衡。這主要是因為主語過長或強調表語或狀語。

  例如:

  At the center of the big room over there is a table that is made of wood which is imported from Brazil of South America.

  在那邊那個大房子的中央有一張用從南美洲的巴西進口的木頭做成的桌子。

  (正常語序:A table that is made of wood which is imported from Brazil of South America is at the center of the big room over there. 這句話主語和謂語間隔太長,不平衡。)

  Still wider will be the use of radar, which plays a very important role in our national defense.

  雷達在我們的國防事業中起著非常重要的作用,它的用處將會更廣泛。

  (正常語序:The use of radar, which plays a very important role in our national defense, will be still wider. 主語和謂語間隔太長,不平衡。)

  Written in English on the blackboard were these words: “Merry Christmas!” 在黑板上用英語寫著這么幾個字:“圣誕快樂!”

  Present at the meeting were the school headmaster, the English teacher, and the students’ parents. 出席會議的有校長、英語教師和學生們的家長。

  Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms. 金字塔里面是國王和王后們的墓穴和通往墓穴的長通道。

  5.其他用法

  倒裝還可用在強調表語和賓語的句子中。把表語和賓語提到主語前。

  如:

  Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements.

  愛因斯坦就是這樣一個取得了偉大成就的單純的人。

  Such was the story he told me. 這就是他給我講的故事。

 

  Happy is he who devotes himself to the cause of communism.

責任編輯:kaoyanmti

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